fixed effects

Comparison of competing approaches to analyzing cross-classified data: Random effects models, ordinary least squares, or fixed effects with cluster robust standard errors

Cross-classified random effects modeling (CCREM) is a common approach for analyzing cross-classified data in education. However, when the focus of a study is on the regression coefficients at level one rather than on the random effects, ordinary …

Small sample methods for cluster-robust variance estimation and hypothesis testing in fixed effects models

In panel data models and other regressions with unobserved effects, fixed effects estimation is often paired with cluster-robust variance estimation (CRVE) to account for heteroscedasticity and un-modeled dependence among the errors. Although …

Clustered standard errors and hypothesis tests in fixed effects models

I’ve recently been working with my colleague Beth Tipton on methods for cluster-robust variance estimation in the context of some common econometric models, focusing in particular on fixed effects models for panel data—or what statisticians would call “longitudinal data” or “repeated measures.